To Hedge or Not to Hedge – Blog 4


Liability hedging has always been a difficult investment decision for pension trustees to make.

This is the final blog in a series that explains the hedging question as ‘right sizing your risk’. In this final blog around liability hedging we will look at carry and the cost of waiting to hedge.

Carry and the cost of waiting to hedge

To calculate the ‘cost’ of under hedging liabilities we need to consider how hedging works in practice. Hedging liabilities with leverage is the same as borrowing cash to buy long maturity government bonds that move in-line with the liabilities. The performance of the hedge has two parts, one resulting from changes in interest rates (‘duration’) and another resulting from the difference in yield from borrowing at cash rates to invest at longer-term rates (‘carry’). In fixed income portfolio management these items are often referred to as ‘roll’ and ‘carry’. If a scheme with a low level of liability hedging is able to extend the level of hedging through increased leverage, (i.e. without reallocating assets from the return seeking portfolio), then any positive ‘carry’ achievable as a result of short-term rates being lower than long-term rates is the opportunity cost of not hedging more now and can be considered the “cost of waiting”. The yield curve, as represented by 20 year less 1 year gilt yield, is steep from a historical perspective, so the carry from borrowing at very short maturities to invest at long maturities is relatively high.

Figure 1: Yield curve steepness between 20-yr gilt and 1-yr gilt rate


Source: Bank of England. Date as of 31 July 2015.

Liability hedging is a difficult investment decision. People who anchor interest rate levels on past norms believe under-hedging strategies will pay-off. This may not be the case, and this series of blogs has argued that any view on interest rates needs to be tempered, essentially the hedging question is about ‘right sizing your risk’. This series of blogs has explained some of the obstacles that face under-hedging strategies. The first is that interest rates have to increase by more than forward pricing, the second is that the existence of a term premium would mean that on balance interest increases are lower than forward pricing, and the third is the level of carry and yield differential between long and short term interest rates.

Crevan Begley, Client Strategy & Research, EMEA


  1. No comments yet.
  1. No trackbacks yet.


For Professional Investors Only

Any opinion expressed is that of Russell Investments, is not a statement of fact, is subject to change and does not constitute investment advice.

Issued by Russell Investments Limited. Company No. 02086230 and Russell Investments Implementation Services Limited Company No. 3049880. Registered in England and Wales with registered office at: Rex House, 10 Regent Street, London SW1Y 4PE. Telephone +44 (0)20 7024 6000. Authorised and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority, 12 Endeavour Square, London E20 1JN.

Russell Investments’ ownership is composed of a majority stake held by funds managed by TA Associates with minority stakes held by funds managed by Reverence Capital Partners and Russell Investments’ management.